The library was established in 1949 and builds a specialized library collection thematically oriented on the theory and history of fine art, architecture and related fields. The collection consists of books, periodicals, microfiche, CD and DVD media and exhibition catalogues, and is the largest of its kind in Slovakia.

The mission of this library is to provide library-information services particularly to professional and scientific employees of artistic and cultural institutions, university and secondary school students with an art-historical or artistic orientation, artists, restorers, and other users according to the possibilities. Thanks to its professional staff, it creates, processes, preserves, provides access to and protects the library fund. As of 31 December 2011, the collection had 101,498 library units.